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Rail and Metro Innovation Guide 2018www.SmartRailWorld.com47Prevention is always be your best line of defence against cyber criminals. As with all crime, those most vulnerable get targeted first. Does your organisation have clearly defined security policies? And more importantly, do your employees understand the most common hack tactics such as phishing, baiting social engineering to name just a few? Then take the hacker's view, look at what you have and assess what is most appealing or important – focus on these areas as these are what the bad guys will be. This type of 'threat modelling' is one of the most effective ways of ensuring security on your network.Terrorism. Terrorists see metro and passenger rail as an attractive target, offering easy access to crowds of people in confined environments where attackers face minimal security risks and where bombings, shootings, and other types of attacks can cause high casualties and significant media exposure. This has been demonstrated recently with the March 2016 bombing of the metro in Brussels, in which 13 people died; the July 2016 knife and axe attack on train passengers in Wuerzberg, Germany, in which four persons were injured; the discovery in October 2016 of an improvised explosive device on a London Underground train; the Bhopal–Ujjain Passenger train bombing in March 2017 which injured nine an explosion on a Metro train in Russian city of St Petersburg which killed 14 in April 2017 and sadly many more.Brian Michael Jenkins, Director of the Mineta Transportation Institute's (MTI) National Transportation Safety and Security Center (and ex-Green Beret) in a recent report highlights further the challenges: "Terrorist attacks on public transport create significant alarm — daily commuters and other passengers cannot easily avoid what they perceive as a source of danger. At the same time, it is not easy to increase security without causing inconvenience and unreasonably slower travel times, while creating vulnerable queues of people waiting to pass through security checkpoints."So what can be done?Rail and metro networks vary in age, design, and usage of above and below ground tracks and infrastructure. This all makes retrofitting them to include new security technology difficult and costly.Security screening of passengers has been an issue discussed and at times briefly implemented at some stations but unlike at the airport, the worldwide approach to train travel is to arrive just minutes before the train departs. Even if pre-travel searches were to become implemented at mainline stations, the ability to carry this out at every station along a route is essentially impossible without a massive increase in resources both financial and human. This is a non-starter realistically.What about gaining passenger name record (PNR) data like on airlines to identify threats before they step on-board the train? A typical flight booking covers 19 pieces of information such as travel dates, contact details, payment methods and if international passport specifics. But again, a quick thought about how passengers actually use a rail network rules this out apart from on a limited number of trains (e.g. the Eurostar). And even let's suppose every train had to be booked this way. Would this stop people setting foot in the station? Again, no.So, where does this leave us? It appears the answer to a safer and more secure rail and metro network is in advanced digital technology overlaid on existing infrastructure and more co-ordinated intelligence.To give a couple of examples of the technology; Smart CCTV, which can automatically detect irregular and suspicious movement at stations and flag up to security staff is being rolled out gradually. Using smart video, you can erect a virtual fence which can detect intruders, and automatically zoom in the camera on the alert area. Then there are smart sensors that can pick up movement (via infrared or acoustic) of trespassers on tracks or in prohibited areas. Technological advances have now ensured that thermal technology works in full sunlight as well, so making this a 24 hour security solution. Whilst improved passenger information systems can alert commuters to problems better and ensure they move to exits or safe zones in more orderly and efficient ways.The second aspect is co-ordinated intelligence between police, intelligence, rail companies and passengers themselves, and the further widening of platforms (mobile, online) where this can be shared. A challenge that exists beyond just the realms of transport security. In response to threats to rail and metro SmartRail World is later this month launching Transport Security World (@TransportSecure) , a news and insight platform for transport operators across all verticals (rail, road air and sea), government officials and suppliers to address current concerns, share best practice and build long-lasting business connections. As part of our community we will also be launching an event in May 2018 in Washington DC, Transport Security and Safety Expo (TSSX), contact Tim Edwards (Event Director) here.SECTION 7: SAFETY AND SECURITY

48www.SmartRailWorld.comRail and Metro Innovation Guide 2018SECTION 7: SAFETY AND SECURITY Wyld Mesh EDEN is an Emergency and Disruption Alert Network for Public Transportation. Wyld Mesh EDEN provides sustainable data distribution in the event of Internet Outages, Power Failures, Terrorist Incidents, Natural Disasters, and Cyber Warfare. Wyld Mesh EDEN is a new approach to Control communications and Passenger and Staff Information distribution, during disruption and emergency scenarios. It is a next generation, unified information capture, curation and communications portal for emergency and disruption information alerts, for passengers and staff on all Customer Information Systems channels. The Wyld Mesh hybrid network combines a real time Internet data stream, with software-defined, device-to-device ad hoc mesh networking, providing the most robust communications topography possible. Wyld Mesh delivers up-to-the-minute emergency and disruption information that is personally relevant and provides passengers with actionable transportation options and alternate routes.Website: www.wyldtechnologies.comTwitter: @wyldtechltdLinkedIn: www.linkedin.com/company/wyld-technologies Since 2007, Waterfall Security has developed and deployed Unidirectional Security Gateway products that eliminate the threat of remote online attacks penetrating critical infrastructure and industrial control systems. Our innovative, patented Unidirectional Security Gateway enables safe and reliable IT/OT integration, remote access and monitoring and diagnostics, and advanced cloud services. Waterfall Security's mission is to revolutionize the way rail systems protect their OCSZ systems from cyberattacks. Our products are recommended as cybersecurity best practices by many regulatory and governmental agencies, including the UK Department for Transportation. Waterfall's gateway solutions are provided 'off-the-shelf', with integral support of the market's widest array of industrial systems, including the OSIsoft PI™ Historian and many others.Website: www.waterfall-security.comTwitter: @WaterfallSecureLinkedIn: www.linkedin.com/company/201558/